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Secondary Battery

An energy storage device that can deliver energy and can be recharged.


A divider made of porous material that is placed in between the positive and negative plates in a battery cell and allows current flow through it while preventing direct contact between the plates which would cause a short circuit.

Series Connection

A method of wiring like batteries together by connecting the positive terminal of one battery to the negative terminal of an other. The voltage for batteries connected in series is additive, while the capacity remains the same as the individual battery.

Series-Parallel Connection

A method of wiring batteries together in a combination of series and parallel connections.

Specific Gravity

The density of a solution relative to the density of water.


A condition where the concentration of acid is greater at the bottom of the battery than at the top. This condition is caused by undercharging, and if not corrected can cause premature failure of the battery. This condition can be prevented by periodic equalization.


The lead sulfate on both the positive and negative electrodes in a lead acid battery results during the discharge portion of the charge / discharge cycle and is a normal part of the battery process. If the battery is allowed to remain in a discharged state for a prolonged period of time, these sulfate crystals continue to grow. These larger crystals reduce the effective plate area ands are difficult to dissolve back into solution with normal charging. Thus, they reduce the overall capacity of the battery. This condition can be prevented effectively recharging the battery immediately following a discharge. This condition can also be prevented by periodically equalizing the battery.

Volt (V)

A unit of measurement for electrical potential within an electrical circuit. ( Volt = Ampere X Ohm )

Watt (W)

A unit of measurement for electrical power. ( Watts = Amperes X Volts )

Watt-Hour (WH)

A unit of measurement for electrical power for a certain period of time. ( Watts X Hours = Watt-Hour )

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